Perceptions of safety
The wellbeing of individuals may be affected not only as a result of direct experience of harm but also as a result of a fear of harm. Individuals’ perceptions of safety involves generalised judgements about the chance of injury or loss .
Different circumstances, times of day, and location factors tend to influence individuals’ perceptions of safety. Perceptions of safety are particularly sensitive to the physical environment (e.g., one’s home vs. public places) because these physical environmental factors are tangible to residents. Fear of crime may cause some people to restrict the choices they make about how to lead their lives, such as avoiding certain areas or avoiding going out at night [14,15]. The fear of crime may have more effect on some residents than actual crime and may have wider impacts on social relations .
This indicator presents the proportion of those 18 years and over reporting that they feel fairly or very safe in four different situations: being in their own home after dark, walking alone in their neighbourhood after dark, or walking in their city/town centre during the day, and the city/town centre after dark. This question was first included in the Canterbury Wellbeing Survey in 2018.
The figure shows that almost all respondents (over 90%) felt fairly safe or very safe in their own home after dark, and in the town/city centre during the day, in 2018 and 2019. Approximately 70 percent of respondents indicated that they felt fairly safe or very safe walking alone in their own neighbourhood after dark (2018 and 2019). Less than half (48.6%) of all respondents felt fairly safe or very safe walking in the city or town centre after dark in 2018, however, the proportion feeling fairly safe or very safe increased statistically significantly to 53.3 percent in 2019. The results show that different circumstances and times of day tend to influence individuals’ perceptions of safety.
Figures 1.3a and 1.3b show perceptions of safety, by ethnicity, in 2018 and 2019. A similar pattern can be seen across all four situations: Māori respondents generally reported lower levels of perceived safety (proportion feeling fairly or very safe) than European and Pacific/Asian/Indian respondents (but the differences are generally not statistically significant). However, Figure 1.3a does show a statistically significantly lower proportion of Māori respondents reporting feeling fairly or very safe when walking alone in their neighbourhood after dark, compared with both European respondents and Pacific/Asian/Indian respondents, in 2018 (58.9%, 68.2%, and 70.5%, respectively), and Pacific/Asian/Indian respondents in 2019 (63.4% and 77.9%, respectively).
Figures 1.4a and 1.4b show perceptions of safety, by age group, in 2018 and 2019. The figures show a pattern of generally similar perceptions of safety for the age groups 18 to 24 years, 25 to 34 years, 35 to 49 years, and 50 to 64 years. However, respondents aged 65 to 74 years, and 75 years and over were statistically significantly less likely to report feeling fairly or very safe for the ‘outdoors after dark’ situations, compared with the younger age groups in 2019 (for example ‘in city/town centre after dark’, 36%, 75+ years compared with 58.7%, 25-34 years, and walking alone in neighbourhood after dark, 54.0%, 75+ years compared with 68.8%, 25-34 years). Generally, in the situations that suggest lower levels of safety (such as outdoors after dark), older respondents tend to report feeling less safe than younger respondents, and the age gradient appears more pronounced in 2019 than in 2018.
Figures 1.5a and 1.5b show that some aspects of the context differentially influence men and women’s perceptions of safety. The results highlight women’s statistically significantly lower perception of safety in outdoor environments after dark (for example, in 2019, only 40.4% of female respondents indicated feeling fairly or very safe walking in the city/town centre after dark, compared to 66.6% of males).
Figures 1.6a and 1.6b show a clear positive relationship between annual household income and respondents’ perceptions of safety. The proportion of respondents feeling fairly safe or very safe in each of the four situations shown tends to increase with increasing income. In all four situations (home, neighbourhood, town/city centre after dark, and town/city centre during the day) respondents from the lowest income group (<$30,000) had statistically significantly lower levels of perceived safety compared with respondents from the highest income group ($100,000+). In 2019, the income gradient is most pronounced for the two situations ‘in city/town centre after dark’ and ‘walking alone in the neighbourhood after dark’.
The figures show that in all four situations respondents with a long-term health condition or disability had statistically significantly lower levels of perceived safety, compared with respondents without a long-term health condition or disability (averaging about 10 percentage points difference across the categories).
Source: Canterbury District Health Board.
Survey/data set: Canterbury Wellbeing Survey to 2019. Access publicly available data from the Community and Public Health (Canterbury DHB) website www.cph.co.nz/your-health/wellbeing-survey/
Source data frequency: Annually.