In the context of this domain, environment comprises the natural environment and built environment. The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things that occur naturally. The built environment includes the form and function, aesthetic qualities, and distribution across space of all human-made physical elements. These elements include: roads, footpaths, cycle paths, railway tracks, and bridges; residential, commercial, office, and industrial buildings; and public spaces and facilities . The built elements are fundamentally influenced by urban design, land use, and transportation requirements. Nearly all elements of the built environment are shaped, to some extent, by planning rules and government policy .
Characteristics of the environment can influence health and wellbeing in direct and indirect ways [1-3]. For example, levels of air pollution, noise, and ease of access to untransformed landscapes are all factors that can directly influence human health and wellbeing. Access to natural environments with high recreational value can buffer stress , and visits to public conservation areas can improve mental health and wellbeing . Indirect effects can come about through environmental features that influence health behaviours (for example the availability of sport and recreational facilities can influence the community’s physical activity patterns). Transport systems are also highly relevant as they impact on health and wellbeing through commuting patterns  and by providing access to other important services such as education, social and health care services, as well as places of employment.
Key trends within environment
The greater Christchurch region has undergone a period of unprecedented environmental change as a consequence of the Canterbury earthquake sequence, which began on 4 September 2010. Some of the immediate impacts on the environment included substantial damage to land; damage to and substantial losses of dwellings, commercial properties, and workplaces; considerable disruption to transport systems; and the loss of sports, recreation, cultural and leisure facilities.
Overall, a large proportion of Christchurch City respondents to the Canterbury Wellbeing Survey is satisfied with the available community facilities but many respondents still report moderate or major impacts from the loss of sports, recreational, cultural and leisure-time facilities. There has been a statistically significant drop in satisfaction with the ease of access to suitable transport, between the 2017 and 2018 Canterbury Wellbeing Surveys, in greater Christchurch overall, as well as in Waimakariri District and Christchurch City. The alcohol licence density in greater Christchurch in 2016, was lower than for New Zealand as a whole, across the three main licence types: on-licences, off-licences, and club licences. However, time-series data are not yet available for this indicator. Gambling machine density reduced markedly in greater Christchurch immediately following the Canterbury earthquakes (mainly due to the loss of premises), however, the decline has flattened over the past five years, and is now broadly in line with gambling machine density across New Zealand overall. Air quality is an area in which substantial improvements have been made. The number of high-pollution days (PM10 exceedances per year) has decreased substantially within the three airsheds (geographical areas) in greater Christchurch since 2008, notably in Kaiapoi and Rangiora which met the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality in 2018.
Key equity issues within environment
While many indicators within environment relate to geographical areas, rather than to people, a number of inequities are highlighted by Canterbury Wellbeing Survey data. Survey data show those with a long-term health condition or disability to be statistically significantly less satisfied with their ease of access to suitable transport and ease of access to the natural environment, at both of the available time-points (2017 and 2018). Respondents of Pacific, Asian or Indian ethnicity had statistically significantly lower levels of satisfaction with community facilities and with their ease of access to the natural environment than European respondents, at all available time-points. Satisfaction with ease of access to transport, and ease of access to the natural environment, both show a weak gradient by income, with the difference between the lowest income (<$30,000 household income) and highest income ($100,000+ household income) groups being statistically significant in 2017 (and in 2018 for access to the natural environment).
What this means for wellbeing
Many aspects of the environment continue to bear long-term damage caused by the Canterbury earthquake sequence. However, the pattern of change observed across many of the indicators in this domain is one of steady improvement. The impact of loss of sports, recreational, cultural and leisure-time facilities has been monitored since the first Canterbury Wellbeing Survey in 2012  and had shown a statistically significant year-on-year improvement until an increase in impact was recorded in 2018. Three additional survey questions, satisfaction with local community facilities, ease of access to transport, and ease of access to the natural environment, were introduced from 2017, and there are high levels of satisfaction across these measures. Other environment indicators, showing lower density of alcohol licences in greater Christchurch, compared with New Zealand, and falling gambling machine density, have positive implications for wellbeing, as does improved air quality.
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