Education

Download complete Education domain

There is a well-known association between education and wellbeing, which is important throughout the life course. The relationship is complex and it appears that most of it is due to our level of education affecting our employment, income and health [1]. For example, educational attainment strongly predicts health literacy, and the skills, knowledge and confidence needed to access and use health and social care services [2]. Differences in educational attainment between different population groups also provide information about access to education and the equity, or fairness, of the education system.

By participating in early childhood education, young children are prepared socially and academically for their transition to primary school. Engagement in primary and secondary education facilitates the development of the knowledge, understanding and skills needed by children and young people to function successfully in the modern world [3]. People who achieve higher educational qualifications tend to earn more, which allows them to maintain better health, participate more in community life and live in better-quality housing [4-6]. In addition, their children tend to go further in their own education.

Education is a resource for life that, apart from providing qualifications and facilitating future employment, can have broader beneficial impacts on health and wellbeing through for example developing values, emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and social skills.

Key trends within education

Early Childhood Education (ECE) participation has increased steadily in greater Christchurch over recent years and has consistently remained above the national target of 98 percent (98.6% in 2016). Since the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was introduced, NCEA Level 2 pass rates for Christchurch City students have been consistently rising and are generally higher than the New Zealand average (82% and 80.3% respectively, in 2016). Selwyn District students have achieved at a high level over time (86.8% in 2016). Results in the Waimakariri District have generally been similar to the national average. The Highest Qualification indicator shows that the distribution of qualifications across the greater Christchurch population is broadly similar to the national picture. In greater Christchurch, the NEET rate (the proportion of young people not engaged in employment, education, or training) decreased substantially over the years following the Canterbury earthquakes and remained well below the national rate through to mid-2016. However, the current data indicate that this post-earthquake difference has now dissipated.

Key equity issues within education

Overall, education data show differences across population groups. While differences across geographical areas, ethnicity, and gender are not statistically significant for ECE participation, large and statistically significant differences are evident at the higher education levels when outcomes are considered by ethnicity. European/Pākehā and Asian ethnic groups consistently have higher levels of mid-level to high-level educational attainment than Māori and Pacific ethnic groups. There are also marked differences in NCEA Level 2 achievement when considered by level of socioeconomic disadvantage. The data show a positive correlation between students’ socioeconomic status and NCEA Level 2 achievement. For example, less than 40 percent of students with the highest degree of socioeconomic disadvantage attained at least an NCEA Level 2 or equivalent qualification in 2016, compared with over 90 percent of students in the most advantaged group.

What this means for wellbeing

Overall, the four education indicators presented within this domain show a satisfactory picture for greater Christchurch. Compared to New Zealand overall, the educational achievement of greater Christchurch residents is, overall, strong and consistent.

Strong, consistent and equitable educational achievement is an important determinant of community wellbeing [1,7,8]. However, total population data can conceal differences between population groups, including those seen by socioeconomic status and ethnicity. These differences are important given the known associations between educational achievement and other life-course outcomes.

References

  1. Feinstein L, Sabates R, Anderson TM, Sorhaindo A, Hammond C (2006) What are the effects of education on health? Copenhagen Symposium: Measuring the Effects of Education on Health and Civic Engagement. Copenhagen.
  2. Public Health England (2015) Local action on health inequalities: Improving health literacy to reduce health inequalities. London: Public Health England.
  3. Hughes D, Lauder H, Robinson T, Simiyu I, Watson S, et al. (1999) Do Schools Make a Difference?: Hierarchical Linear Modelling of School Certificate Results in 23 Schools: The Smithfield Project, Phase Three: Eighth Report to the Ministry of Education. Wellington.
  4. CSDH (2008) Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  5. Marmot M (2004) Social Causes of Social Inequalities in Health In: Anand S, Peter F, Sen. AK, editors. Public health, ethics, and equity. Oxford: Oxford University Press on Demand.
  6. Marmot M, Bell R (2012) Fair society, healthy lives. Public Health 126: S4-10.
  7. Mitchell L, Wylie C, Carr M (2008) Outcomes of early childhood education: Literature review. A report by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research for the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  8. Ross CE, Wu C-l (1995) The Links Between Education and Health. American Sociological Review 60: 719-745.
  9. OECD (2013) OECD Indicators: Education at a Glance 2013. Paris: OECD.
  10. Wylie C, Hodgen E, Hipkins R, Vaughan K (2009) Competent learners on the edge of adulthood: A summary of key findings from the Competent Learners @ 16 project. Wellington: Ministry of Education and New Zealand Centre for Education Research.
  11. OECD (2017) Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  12. Allen M (2014) Local action on health inequalities: Reducing the number of young people not in employment, education or training (NEET). Nottingham: Department for Children, Schools and Families.
  13. Statistics New Zealand (2011) Introducing the youth not in employment, education, or training indicator. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.
  14. International Labour Organization (2011) Manual on decent work indicators (DWIs): Methodology and progress. How can DWIs and ILO's manual be used for quality of employment work? Geneva: International Labour Organization.